On utilise généralement le futur perfect (ou futur parfait simple) pour parler d’actions qui seront terminées avant un moment donné, un événement ou une autre action future.
- He will have finished school before 5pm. (= Il aura fini l’école avant 17h.)
- The party will already have finished by the time we get there. (= La fête sera déjà terminé quand nous arriverons.)
- Tomorrow morning she will have left. (= Demain matin elle sera parti.)
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Sujet + WILL HAVE + Verbe (participe passé)
|I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they_||I will have played_||_I will not (= I won’t) have played_||_Will I have played ?_|
- (+) He will have finished work by 5pm.
- (-) He will not have (= won’t have) finished work by 5pm.
- (?) Will he have finished work by 5pm?
On utilise le future perfect pour exprimer:
* Une action réalisée avant un événement ou action future
Quelque chose va se passer avant une autre action dans le futur, ou avant un moment spécifique du futur (tomorrow, next month, before something, by 2pm…)
Vous remarquerez qu’on utilise le present simple pour les points de référence:
- He will have cleaned up the house before they move in.
- She will have written the letter before tonight.
- I will have finished the job before the deadline.
- How many countries will you have visited by the time you turn 30?
- By the time he gets home, she will have cleaned the entire room.
- She will have finished this test by noon.
- Phil will have drunk ten beers by the time the party starts.
- Will she have learned enough japanese before she moves to Osaka?
* La durée de certaines actions avant une date ou événement futur
- I will have known Sarah for ten years in October.
- Patrick will have lived in Sydney for 10 years by 2014.
- I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
- By Monday, Karl will have had my Ipod for a month.
- We will have been married for one year next month.
* la conviction que quelque chose vient de se passer
- There’s no point in going to the party. Everybody will have left by now. (= I’m sure everybody has left the party)
- The bus will have left by now. (= I’m sure the bus has left)
- My parents will have arrived in Bangkok by now. (I’m sure my parents have arrived in Bangkok)
- The bus will have left by now. = The bus is going to have left by now.
On utilise le present perfect à la place:
On utilise souvent le futur perfect avec:
by / by the time / before / by tomorrow / at 7 o’clock / next month / until / till