Le futur perfect (I will have done)
On utilise généralement le futur perfect (ou futur parfait simple) pour parler d’actions qui seront terminées avant un moment donné, un événement ou une autre action future.
- He will have finished school before 5pm. (= Il aura fini l’école avant 17h.)
- The party will already have finished by the time we get there. (= La fête sera déjà terminé quand nous arriverons.)
- Tomorrow morning she will have left. (= Demain matin elle sera parti.)
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Sujet + WILL HAVE + Verbe (participe passé)
|I / you / he / she / it / we / you / they_||I will have played_||_I will not (= I won’t) have played_||_Will I have played ?_|
- (+) He will have finished work by 5pm.
- (-) He will not have (= won’t have) finished work by 5pm.
- (?) Will he have finished work by 5pm?
On utilise le future perfect pour exprimer:
* Une action réalisée avant un événement ou action future
Quelque chose va se passer avant une autre action dans le futur, ou avant un moment spécifique du futur (tomorrow, next month, before something, by 2pm…)
Vous remarquerez qu’on utilise le present simple pour les points de référence:
- He will have cleaned up the house before they move in.
- She will have written the letter before tonight.
- I will have finished the job before the deadline.
- How many countries will you have visited by the time you turn 30?
- By the time he gets home, she will have cleaned the entire room.
- She will have finished this test by noon.
- Phil will have drunk ten beers by the time the party starts.
- Will she have learned enough japanese before she moves to Osaka?
* La durée de certaines actions avant une date ou événement futur
- I will have known Sarah for ten years in October.
- Patrick will have lived in Sydney for 10 years by 2014.
- I will have been in London for six months by the time I leave.
- By Monday, Karl will have had my Ipod for a month.
- We will have been married for one year next month.
* la conviction que quelque chose vient de se passer
- There’s no point in going to the party. Everybody will have left by now. (= I’m sure everybody has left the party)
- The bus will have left by now. (= I’m sure the bus has left)
- My parents will have arrived in Bangkok by now. (I’m sure my parents have arrived in Bangkok)
⚠️ On peut employer ‘going to’ à la place de ‘will’ (même signification)
- The bus will have left by now. = The bus is going to have left by now.
⚠️ Pas de futur perfect avec when, while, before, after, by the time, as soon as, if, unless, etc.
On utilise le present perfect à la place:
- I am going to play video games when I will have finished my homework. ❌
- I am going to play video games when I have finished my homework. ✔️
⚠️ Expressions de temps courants
On utilise souvent le futur perfect avec:
by / by the time / before / by tomorrow / at 7 o’clock / next month / until / till
- He will have retired by the end of this year.
- I will have finished that report before the deadline.
⚠️ Forme active / passive
- Tom will have repaired the car before the end of the week. (Active)
- The car will have been repaired by Tom before the end of the week. (Passive)
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